December 24, 2011

What is the difference between Conventional Testing and Unconventional Testing?

Conventional Testing is done by Test Engineers to check whether the developed application is working fine as per the requirements.

Unconventional Testing is done by Quality Assurance team with the reference of each and every documents starting from initial stage of SDLC. This process involves verification through walkthrough and inspections to check whether the development happened as per the company process guidelines or not.

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July 11, 2011

Explain Agile Testing.

Agile Testing is a testing practice done from the customer perspective, it doesn’t follow test procedures and the delivery would happen as early as possible.

Agile testing is useful whenever the customer requirements are changing frequently.

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May 30, 2011

Define CVS.

CVS is Concurrent Versioning System which is a version control system, where the history of sources files can be recorded.

The main advantages of CVS are,

• You can save each file of every version.

• After modifications in source, if u detect a bug, you can easily retrieve the old version to check which change caused that bug.

• CVS can be used to merge the work done by all the developers.

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September 24, 2010

Explain the different types of Severity.

User Interface Defects – Low
Boundary Related Defects – Medium
Error Handling Defects – Medium
Calculation Defects – High
Interpreting Data Defects – High
Hardware Failures & Problems - High
Compatibility and Intersystem defects- High
Control flow defects – High
Load Conditions (Memory Leakages under load testing) – High

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July 13, 2010

What is Bucket Testing?

Bucket Testing (also known as A/B Testing) is mostly used to study the impact of various product designs in website metrics, two simultaneous versions were run in a single or set of web pages to measure the difference in click rates, interface and traffic.

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June 30, 2010

What is Entry and Exit Criteria in Software Testing?

The Entry Criteria is the process that must be present when a system begins, like,
SRS – Software
Test Case
Test Plan

The Exit Criteria ensures whether testing is completed and the application is ready for release, like,
Test Summary Report
Defect Analysis Report.

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June 11, 2010

What is Concurrency Testing?

Concurrency Testing (also commonly known as Multi User Testing) is used to know the effects of accessing the Application, Code Module or Database by different users at the same time.
It helps in identifying and measuring the problems in Response time, levels of locking and deadlocking in the application.

Load runner is widely used for this type of testing, Vugen (Virtual User Generator) is used to add the number of concurrent users and how the users need to be added like Gradual Rampup or Spike Stepped.

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April 16, 2010

What is the difference between Functional Requirement and Non – Functional Requirement?

The Functional Requirement specifies how the system or application SHOULD DO where in Non – Functional Requirement it specifies how the system or application SHOULD BE.

Some Functional Requirements are,
Business Rules
Historical Data
Legal and Regulatory Requirements
External Interfaces

Some Non Functional Requirements are,
Data Integrity

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January 27, 2010

Explain Statement Coverage / Code Coverage / Line Coverage.

Statement Coverage or Code Coverage or Line Coverage is a metric used in White Box Testing where we can identify the statements executed and where the code is not executed cause of blockage. In this process each and every line of the code needs to be checked and executed.

Some advantages of Statement Coverage / Code Coverage / Line Coverage are,
· It verifies what the written code is expected to do and not to do.
· It measures the quality of code written.
· It checks the flow of different paths in the program also ensure whether those paths are tested or not.

To Calculate Statement Coverage,
Statement Coverage = Statements Tested / Total No. of Statements.

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December 29, 2009

Explain Branch Coverage / Decision Coverage.

Branch Coverage or Decision Coverage metric is used to check the volume of testing done in all components. This process is used to ensure whether all the code is executed by verifying every branch or decision outcome (if and while statements) by executing atleast one time, so that no branches lead to the failure of the application.

To Calculate Branch Coverage,
Branch Coverage = Tested Decision Outcomes / Total Decision Outcomes.

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November 25, 2009

What is the difference between High level and Low level test cases?

High level Test cases are those which covers major functionality in the application (i.e. retrieve, update display, cancel (functionality related test cases), database test cases).

Low level test cases are those related to User Interface (UI) in the application.

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October 26, 2009

Explain Localization Testing with examples.

Localization is the process of changing or modifying an application to a particular culture or locale. This includes change in user interface, graphical designs or even the initial settings according to their culture and requirements.

In terms of Localization Testing it verifies how correctly the application is changed or modified into that target culture and language.

In case of translation required of the application on that local language, testing should be done on each field to check the correct translation. Other formats like date conversion, hardware and software usage like operating system should also be considered in localization testing.

Examples for Localization Testing are,
· In Islamic Banking all the transactions and product features are based on Shariah Law, some important points to be noted in Islamic Banking are,
1.In Islamic Banking, the bank shares the profit and loss with the customer.
2.In Islamic Banking, the bank cannot charge interest on the customer; instead they charge a nominal fee which is termed as “Profit”.
3.In Islamic Banking, the bank will not deal or invest in business like Gambling, Alcohol, Pork, etc.
In this case, we need to test whether these Islamic banking conditions were modified and applied in the application or product.

· In Islamic Lending, they follow both the Gregorian Calendar and Hijiri Calendar for calculating the loan repayment schedule. The Hijiri Calendar is commonly called as Islamic Calendar followed in all the Muslim countries according to the lunar cycle. The Hijiri Calendar has 12 months and 354 days which is 11 days shorter than Gregorian Calendar. In this case, we need to test the repayment schedule by comparing both the Gregorian Calendar and Hijiri Calendar.

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September 25, 2009

Explain Risk Analysis in Software Testing.

In Software Testing, Risk Analysis is the process of identifying risks in applications and prioritizing them to test.

In Software Testing some unavoidable risk might takes place like,
· Change in requirements or Incomplete requirements.
· Time allocation for testing.
· Developers delaying to deliver the build for testing.
· Urgency from client for delivery.
· Defect Leakage due to application size or complexity.

To overcome these risks, the following activities can be done,
· Conducting Risk Assessment review meeting with the development team.
· Profile for Risk coverage is created by mentioning the importance of each area.
· Using maximum resources to work on High Risk areas like allocating more testers for High risk areas and minimum resources for Medium and Low risk areas.Creation of Risk assessment database for future maintenance and management review.

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September 11, 2009

What is the difference between Two Tier Architecture and Three Tier Architecture?

In Two Tier Architecture or Client/Server Architecture two layers like Client and Server is involved. The Client sends request to Server and the Server responds to the request by fetching the data from it. The problem with the Two Tier Architecture is the server cannot respond to multiple requests at the same time which causes data integrity issues.

The Client/Server Testing involves testing the Two Tier Architecture of user interface in the front end and database as backend with dependencies on Client, Hardware and Servers.

In Three Tier Architecture or Multi Tier Architecture three layers like Client, Server and Database are involved. In this the Client sends a request to Server, where the Server sends the request to Database for data, based on that request the Database sends back the data to Server and from Server the data is forwarded to Client.

The Web Application Testing involves testing the Three Tier Architecture including the User interface, Functionality, Performance, Compatibility, Security and Database testing.

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July 2, 2009

What is the difference between Static Testing and Dynamic Testing?

Static Testing
Static Testing is a White Box testing technique where the developers verify or test their code with the help of checklist to find errors in it, this type of testing is done without running the actually developed application or program. Code Reviews, Inspections, Walkthroughs are mostly done in this stage of testing.
Dynamic Testing
Dynamic Testing is done by executing the actual application with valid inputs to check the expected output. Examples of Dynamic Testing methodologies are Unit Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing and Acceptance Testing.
Some differences between Static Testing and Dynamic Testing are,
· Static Testing is more cost effective than Dynamic Testing because Static Testing is done in the initial stage.
· In terms of Statement Coverage, the Static Testing covers more areas than Dynamic Testing in shorter time.
· Static Testing is done before the code deployment where the Dynamic Testing is done after the code deployment.
· Static Testing is done in the Verification stage where the Dynamic Testing is done in the Validation stage.

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June 1, 2009

Explain Use case diagrams. What are the attributes of use cases?

Use Case Diagrams is an overview graphical representation of the functionality in a system. It is used in the analysis phase of a project to specify the system to be developed.
In Use Case Diagrams the whole system is defined as ACTORS, USE CASES and ASSOCIATIONS, the ACTORS are the external part of the system like users, computer software & hardware, USECASES is the behavior or functionality of the system when these ACTORS perform an action, the ASSOCIATIONS are the line drawn to show the connection between ACTORS and USECASES. One ACTOR can link to many USECASES and one USECASE can link to many ACTORS.

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April 16, 2009

What is Web Application Testing? Explain the different phases in Web Application Testing.

Web Application Testing is done on a website to check its load, performance, Security, Functionality, Interface, compatibility and other usability related issues.
In Web application testing, three phases of testing is done, they are,
Web Tier Testing
In Web tier testing, the browser compatibility of the application will be tested for IE, FireFox and other web browsers.
Middle Tier Testing
In Middle tier testing, the functionality and security issues were tested.
Database Tier Testing
In Database tier testing, the database integrity and the contents of the database were tested and verified.

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March 3, 2009

What is the difference between Priority and Severity?

The terms Priority and Severity are used in Bug Tracking to share the importance of a bug among the team and to fix it.

1. The Severity status is used to explain how badly the deviation is affecting the build.
2. The severity type is defined by the tester based on the written test cases and functionality.

Ex : If an application or a web page crashes when a remote link is clicked, in this case clicking the remote link by an user is rare but the impact of application crashing is severe, so the severity is high and priority is low.

1. The Priority status is set by the tester to the developer mentioning the time frame to fix a defect. If High priority is mentioned then the developer has to fix it at the earliest.
2. The priority status is set based on the customer requirements.

Ex : If the company name is misspelled in the home page of a website, then the priority is high and the severity is low to fix it.

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February 22, 2009

Explain Unit Testing, Interface Testing and Integration Testing. Also explain the types of Integration Testing in brief.

Unit Testing

Unit Testing is done to check whether the individual modules of the source code is working properly. i.e Testing each and every unit of the application separately by the developer in developers environment.

Interface Testing

Interface Testing is done to check whether the individual modules are communicating properly one among other as per the specifications.

Interface Testing is mostly used in testing the user interface of GUI applications.

Integration Testing

Integration Testing is done to check the connectivity by combining all the individual modules together and test the functionality.

The types of Integration Testing are,

1) Big Bang Integration Testing

In Big Bang Integration Testing, the individual modules are not integrated until all the modules are ready. Then they will run to check whether it is performing well.

In this type of testing, some disadvantages might occur like,

Defects can be found at the later stage.

It would be difficult to find out whether the defect arouse in Interface or in module.

2) Top Down Integration Testing

In Top Down Integration Testing, the high level modules are integrated and tested first. i.e Testing from main module to sub module. In this type of testing, Stubs are used as temporary module if a module is not ready for integration testing.

3) Bottom Up Integration Testing

In Bottom Up Integration Testing, the low level modules are integrated and tested first i.e Testing from sub module to main module. Same like Stubs, here drivers are used as a temporary module for integration testing.

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February 7, 2009

Explain Alpha, Beta, Gamma Testing.

Alpha Testing
Alpha Testing is mostly like performing usability testing which is done by the in-house developers who developed the software or testers. Sometimes this Alpha Testing is done by the client or an outsider with the presence of developer and tester. The version release after alpha testing is called Alpha Release.

Beta Testing
Beta Testing is done by limited number of end users before delivery, the change request would be fixed if the user gives feedback or reports defect. The version release after beta testing is called beta Release.

Gamma Testing
Gamma Testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements, this testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.

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January 18, 2009

Explain the methods and techniques used for Security Testing.

Security testing can be performed in many ways like,
· Black Box Level
· White Box Level
· Database Level

Black Box Level
· Session Hijacking
Session Hijacking commonly called as “IP Spoofing” where a user session will be attacked on a protected network.
· Session Prediction
Session Prediction is a method of obtaining data or a session ID of an authorized user and gets access to the application. In a web application the session ID can be retrieved from cookies or URL.
The Session Prediction happening can be predicted when a website is not responding normally or stops responding for an unknown reason.
· Email Spoofing
Email Spoofing is duplicating the email header (“From” address) to look like originated from actual source and if the email is replied it will land in the spammers inbox. By inserting commands in the header the message information can be altered. It is possible to send a spoofed email with information you didn’t write.
· Content Spoofing
Content spoofing is a technique to develop a fake website and make the user believe that the information and website is genuine. When the user enters his Credit Card Number, Password, SSN and other important details the hacker can get the data and use if for fraud purposes.
· Phishing
Phishing is similar to Email Spoofing where the hacker sends a genuine look like mail attempting to get the personal and financial information of the user. The emails will appear to have come from well known websites.
· Password Cracking
Password Cracking is used to identify an unknown password or to identify a forgotten password
Password cracking can be done through two ways,
1. Brute Force – The hacker tries with a combination of characters within a length and tries until it is getting accepted.
2. Password Dictionary – The hacker uses the Password dictionary where it is available on various topics.

White Box Level
· Malicious Code Injection
SQL Injection is most popular in Code Injection Attack, the hacker attach the malicious code into the good code by inserting the field in the application. The motive behind the injection is to steal the secured information which was intended to be used by a set of users.
Apart from SQL Injection, the other types of Malicious code injection are XPath Injection, LDAP Injection, and Command Execution Injection. Similar to SQL Injection the XPath Injection deals with XML document.
· Penetration Testing
Penetration Testing is used to check the security of a computer or a network. The test process explores all the security aspects of the system and tries to penetrate the system.
· Input Validation
Input validation is used to defend the applications from hackers. If the input is not validated mostly in web applications it could lead to system crashes, database manipulation and corruption.
· Variable Manipulation
Variable manipulation is used as a method for specifying or editing the variables in a program. It is mostly used to alter the data sent to web server.

Database Level
· SQL Injection
SQL Injection is used to hack the websites by changing the backend SQL statements, using this technique the hacker can steal the data from database and also delete and modify it.

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December 22, 2008

Explain IEEE 829 standard and other software testing standards.

IEEE 829 Standard is used for Software Test Documentation, where it specifies format for the set of documents to be used in the different stages software testing.

The documents are,

Test Plan – Test Plan is a planning document which has information about the scope, resources, duration, test coverage and other details.

Test Design – Test Design document has information of test pass criteria with test conditions and expected results.

Test Case – Test case document has information about the test data to be used.

Test Procedure – Test Procedure has information about the test steps to be followed and how to execute it.

Test Log – Test log has details about the run test cases, test plans & fail status, order, and the resource information who tested it.

Test Incident Report – Test Incident Report has information about the failed test comparing the actual result with expected result.

Test Summary Report – Test Summary Report has information about the testing done and quality of the software, it also analyses whether the software has met the requirements given by customer.

The other standards related to software testing are,

IEEE 1008 is for Unit Testing

IEEE 1012 is for Software verification and validation

IEEE 1028 is for Software Inspections

IEEE 1061 is for Software metrics and methodology

IEEE 1233 is for guiding the SRS development

IEEE 12207 is for SLC process

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December 17, 2008

What is Test Harness?

Test Harness is configuring a set of tools and test data to test an application in various conditions, which involves monitoring the output with expected output for correctness.

The benefits of Test Harness are,
Productivity increase due to process automation.
Quality in the application.

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November 23, 2008


SEI refers to Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, it helps to improve software development process. SEI offers technical guidance for advanced practice in software engineering.

CMM refers to 'Capability Maturity Model', presently called as CMMI 'Capability Maturity Model Integration’; it was developed by SEI and used to understand the processes followed in as organization. CMMI ratings were given to organizations after review by auditors.

CMMI has five levels of process maturity for quality software delivery, they are,

Level 1 – In this level only few processes were used and to rely on individual efforts for successful completion of projects.

Level 2 – In this level there will be realistic planning like project tracking, requirements analysis, configuration management.

Level 3 – In this level a proper software development and maintenance are incorporated throughout the organization. Training programs are exercised for better understanding of the process.

Level 4 – In this level various metrics are used to follow the process and products. The delivery quality is high.

Level 5 – In this level new process and technology were used and implemented efficiently. The objective will be for consistence process development.

ISO refers to 'International Organization for Standardization', the ISO 9001:2000 standard is used for quality systems audited by outside auditors. This standard is applicable for manufacturing companies not only for software. This standard is given based on the documentation, design, production, testing, servicing and other processes.

IEEE refers to 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers', which has members from many technical professional organizations around the world. IEEE 829 is the standard followed for software test documentation.

ANSI refers to 'American National Standards Institute', which manages the development of standards for products, services, personnel, processes, and systems in U.S. This organization also works with other international standards to make use of American products worldwide.

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October 14, 2008

What is Scalability Testing?

Scalability Testing is used to check whether the functionality and performance of a system are capable to meet the volume and size change as per the requirements.
Scalability testing can be done using load test with various software and hardware configurations changed, where the testing environment settings unchanged.

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September 27, 2008

Explain Test Plan, Test Strategy, Test Scenario, Test Case, Test Script, Test Environment, Test Procedure and Test Log.

Test Plan:
Test Plan is a document with information on Scope of the project, Approach, Schedule of testing activities, Resources or Manpower required, Risk Issues, Features to be tested and not to be tested, Test Tools and Environment Requirements.

Test Strategy:
Test Strategy is a document prepared by the Quality Assurance Department with the details of testing approach to reach the Quality standards.

Test Scenario:
Test Scenario is prepared based on the test cases and test scripts with the sequence of execution.

Test Case:
Test case is a document normally prepared by the tester with the sequence of steps to test the behavior of feature/functionality/non-functionality of the application.
Test Case document consists of Test case ID, Test Case Name, Conditions (Pre and Post Conditions) or Actions, Environment, Expected Results, Actual Results, Pass/Fail.
The Test cases can be broadly classified as User Interface Test cases, Positive Test cases and Negative Test cases.

Test Script:
Test Script is a program written to test the functionality of the application. It is a set of system readable instructions to automate the testing with the advantage of doing repeatable and regression testing easily.

Test Environment:
It is the Hardware and Software Environment where is the testing is going to be done. It also explains whether the software under test interacts with Stubs and Drivers.

Test Procedure:
Test Procedure is a document with the detailed instruction for step by step execution of one or more test cases. Test procedure is used in Test Scenario and Test Scripts.

Test Log:
Test Log contains the details of test case execution and the output information.

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September 22, 2008

What are the major activities in Database Testing?

The major activities in Database testing includes,
Checking the Data Validity
Checking the Data Integrity
Checking the Performance related to Database
Checking the Security Aspects

The aspects to be considered in Database Schema testing are,
Checking the Databases and Devices
Checking the Tables, Fields, Constraints, Defaults
Checking the Keys and Indexes
Checking the Stored procedures & Packages
Checking the Error messages
Checking the Triggers - Update, Insert, Delete
Checking the Schema comparisons

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June 22, 2008

What is Fuzz Testing ?

Fuzz testing is a Black box testing technique which uses random bad data to attack a program and see what breaks in the application.
Fuzz testing is mostly used to,
• Set up a correct file to enter your program.
• Restore some part of the file by using random data.
• Unlock the file with the program.
• Observe what breaks.
Fuzz testing can be automated for maximum effects on large applications. This testing improves the confidence that the application is safe and secure.

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September 28, 2007

Explain Peer Review in Software Testing

It is an alternative form of Testing, where some colleagues were invited to examine your work products for defects and improvement opportunities.
Some Peer review approaches are,

Inspection – It is a more systematic and rigorous type of peer review. Inspections are more effective at finding defects than are informal reviews.
Ex : In Motorola’s Iridium project nearly 80% of the defects were detected through inspections where only 60% of the defects were detected through formal reviews.

Team Reviews – It is a planned and structured approach but less formal and less rigorous comparing to Inspections.

Walkthrough – It is an informal review because the work product’s author describes it to some colleagues and asks for suggestions. Walkthroughs are informal because they typically do not follow a defined procedure, do not specify exit criteria, require no management reporting, and generate no metrics.

Pair Programming – In Pair Programming, two developers work together on the same program at a single workstation and continuously reviewing their work.

Peer Deskcheck – In Peer Deskcheck only one person besides the author examines the work product. It is an informal review, where the reviewer can use defect checklists and some analysis methods to increase the effectiveness.

Passaround – It is a multiple, concurrent peer deskcheck where several people are invited to provide comments on the product.

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August 30, 2007

Explain Compatibility Testing with an example.

Compatibility testing is to evaluate the application compatibility with the computing environment like Operating System, Database, Browser compatibility, Backwards compatibility, Computing capacity of the Hardware Platform and compatibility of the Peripherals.

Ex : If Compatibility testing is done on a Game application, before installing a game on a computer, its compatibility is checked with the computer specification that whether it is compatible with the computer having that much of specification or not.

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What is Traceability Matrix ?

Traceability Matrix is a document used for tracking the requirement, Test cases and the defect. This document is prepared to make the clients satisfy that the coverage done is complete as end to end, This document consists of Requirement/Base line doc Ref No., Test case/Condition, Defects/Bug id. Using this document the person can track the Requirement based on the Defect id.

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August 29, 2007

Explain Load, Performance, Stress Testing with an example

Load Testing and Performance Testing are commonly said as positive testing where as Stress Testing is said to be as negative testing.

Say for example if there is an application which can handle 25 simultaneous user logins at a time. In load testing we will test the application for 25 users and check how application is working in this stage, in performance testing we will concentrate on the time taken to perform the operation. Where as in stress testing we will test with more users than 25 and the test will continue to any number and we will check where the application is cracking the Hardware resources.

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January 23, 2007

Explain Boundary value testing and Equivalence testing with some examples.

Boundary value testing is a technique to find whether the application is accepting the expected range of values and rejecting the values which falls out of range.
Ex. A user ID text box has to accept alphabet characters ( a-z ) with length of 4 to 10 characters.
BVA is done like this, max value:10 pass; max-1: 9 pass;
max+1=11 fail ;min=4 pass;min+1=5 pass;min-1=3 fail;
Like wise we check the corner values and come out with a conclusion whether the application is accepting correct range of values.
Equivalence testing is normally used to check the type of the object.
Ex. A user ID text box has to accept alphabet characters ( a - z ) with length of 4 to 10 characters.
In +ve condition we have test the object by giving alphabets. i.e a-z char only, after that we need to check whether the object accepts the value, it will pass.
In -ve condition we have to test by giving other than alphabets (a-z) i.e A-Z,0-9,blank etc, it will fail.

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January 17, 2007

What is Security testing?

It is a process used to look out whether the security features of a system are implemented as designed and also whether they are adequate for a proposed application environment. This process involves functional testing, penetration testing and verification.

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What is Installation testing?

Installation testing is done to verify whether the hardware and software are installed and configured properly. This will ensure that all the system components were used during the testing process. This Installation testing will look out the testing for a high volume data, error messages as well as security testing.

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December 27, 2006

What is AUT ?

AUT is nothing but "Application Under Test". After the designing and coding phase in Software development life cycle, the application comes for testing then at that time the application is stated as Application Under Test.

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What is Defect Leakage ?

Defect leakage occurs at the Customer or the End user side after the application delivery. After the release of the application to the client, if the end user gets any type of defects by using that application then it is called as Defect leakage. This Defect Leakage is also called as Bug Leakage.

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November 18, 2006

What are the contents in an effective Bug report?

· Project
· Subject
· Description
· Summary
· Detected By (Name of the Tester)
· Assigned To (Name of the Developer who is supposed to the Bug)
· Test Lead ( Name )
· Detected in Version
· Closed in Version
· Date Detected
· Expected Date of Closure
· Actual Date of Closure
· Priority (Medium, Low, High, Urgent)
· Severity (Ranges from 1 to 5)
· Status· Bug ID
· Attachment
· Test Case Failed (Test case that is failed for the Bug)

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What is Bug Life Cycle?

Bug life cycle is nothing but the various phases a bug undergoes after it is raised or reported.
The different phases of Bug life cycle are,
· New or Opened
· Assigned
· Fixed
· Tested
· Closed

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What is Error guessing and Error seeding ?

Error Guessing is a test case design technique where the tester has to guess what faults might occur and to design the tests to represent them.

Error Seeding is the process of adding known faults intentionally in a program for the reason of monitoring the rate of detection & removal and also to estimate the number of faults remaining in the program.

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November 9, 2006

What is the difference between Bug, Error and Defect?

Bug : It is found in the development environment before the product is shipped to the respective customer.
Error : It is the Deviation from actual and the expected value.
Defect : It is found in the product itself after it is shipped to the respective customer.

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Explain Test bed and Test data.

Test Bed is an execution environment configured for software testing. It consists of specific hardware, network topology, Operating System, configuration of the product to be under test, system software and other applications. The Test Plan for a project should be developed from the test beds to be used.

Test Data is that run through a computer program to test the software. Test data can be used to test the compliance with effective controls in the software.

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October 12, 2006

What is Negative testing?

Negative Testing - Testing the system using negative data is called negative testing, e.g. testing the password where it should be minimum of 8 characters so testing it using 6 characters is negative testing.

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September 18, 2006

What is SDLC and STLC? Explain its different phases.

· Requirement phase
· Designing phase (HLD, DLD (Program spec))
· Coding
· Testing
· Release
· Maintenance

· System Study
· Test planning
· Writing Test case or scripts
· Review the test case
· Executing test case
· Bug tracking
· Report the defect

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September 13, 2006

What is Ad-hoc testing?

Ad hoc testing is concern with the Application Testing without following any rules or test cases.
For Ad hoc testing one should have strong knowledge about the Application.

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September 11, 2006

Describe bottom-up and top-down approaches in Regression Testing.

Bottom-up approach : In this approach testing is conducted from sub module to main module, if the main module is not developed a temporary program called DRIVERS is used to simulate the main module.

Top-down approach : In this approach testing is conducted from main module to sub module. if the sub module is not developed a temporary program called STUB is used for simulate the submodule.

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What is the difference between structural and functional testing?

Structural testing is a "white box" testing and it is based on the algorithm or code.

Functional testing is a "black box" (behavioral) testing where the tester verifies the functional specification.

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September 9, 2006

What is the difference between Re-test and Regression Testing?

Re- test - Retesting means we testing only the certain part of an application again and not considering how it will effect in the other part or in the whole application.

Regression Testing - Testing the application after a change in a module or part of the application for testing that is the code change will affect rest of the application.

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What is UAT testing? When it is to be done?

UAT Testing - UAT stands for 'User acceptance Testing. This testing is carried out with the user perspective and it is usually done before the release.


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September 8, 2006

What are the basic solutions for the software development problems?

· Basic requirements - clear, detailed, complete, achievable, testable requirements has to be developed. Use some prototypes to help pin down requirements. In nimble environments, continuous and close coordination with customers/end-users is needed.

· Schedules should be realistic - enough time to plan, design, test, bug fix, re-test, change, and document in the given schedule.

· Adequate testing – testing should be started early, it should be re-tested after the bug fixed or changed, enough time should be spend for testing and bug-fixing.

· Proper study on initial requirements – be ready to look after more changes after the development has begun and be ready to explain the changes done to others. Work closely with the customers and end-users to manage expectations. This avoids excessive changes in the later stages.

· Communication – conduct frequent inspections and walkthroughs in appropriate time period; ensure that the information and the documentation is available on up-to-date if possible electronic. More emphasize on promoting teamwork and cooperation inside the team; use prototypes and proper communication with the end-users to clarify their doubts and expectations.

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